Saturday, March 14, 2020

How to Bring Clarity to Business Writing

How to Bring Clarity to Business Writing Clarity in business writing allows your ideas to be easily understood, free of add-on words that make a sentence murky and convoluted. There are several rhetorical strategies to achieve clarity, but here are three techniques that best sweep away the bloat to let your ideas shine. Business Writing Clarity Strategy #1: Unsmother Your Verbs Focus on verbs.They are the action of a sentence, and the best opportunity to enhance clarity. Imagine watching a Bruce Willis movie that shows Bruce napping or knitting or whittling on a park bench for 90 minutes... Bored yet? So too are readers if your writing has little action or wimpy verbs. Unsmother your verbs. Smothered verbs are so common in business writing that they feel correct when you use them. However, a smothered verb adds nothing but bloat and the tone feels both timid and boring to a reader. This article will explain smothered verbs in detail. You will cut at least 25% of unnecessary words by simply unsmothering verbs. Let the verb do its job in a sentence without smothering add-on words. The impact on business writing clarity is amazing. Business Writing Clarity Strategy #2: Avoid Adverbs Choose powerful verbs that connote meaning, which don't need a second modifying word to do their job! For instance: "The attendant shouted loudly." "The attendant shouted," is a perfect sentence. "Loudly" is inferred and extraneous. "The executive ran quickly into the boardroom." "Ran quickly" is wasteful. Pick a better verb. "The executive sprinted into the boardroom" is concise, visual, and lively. Business Writing Clarity Strategy #3: Recognize the Power of Short Words. Years back, some business writers felt they conveyed their intelligence more by dropping long words, when short words actually worked better. Rhetorically, this has never been good writing. Long words don’t make you sound intelligent unless used very skillfully and judiciously. In the wrong situation they’ll have the opposite effect, making you sound pretentious and arrogant. They’re also less likely to be understood and more awkward to read. I've always loved Hemingway's response when Faulkner criticized him for his limited word choice: Poor Faulkner. Does he really think big emotions come from big words? He thinks I don’t know the ten-dollar words. I know them all right. But there are older and simpler and better words, and those are the ones I use. Example: Fine, but can be improved: It has never been a good writing practice to use big words indiscriminately. Better: It has never been a good writing practice to use big words needlessly. ("Needlessly" is shorter and simpler than "indiscriminately.") Best: It has never been a good writing practice to bloat with big words. (More powerful verb "bloat" instead of vague verb "use" eliminates the need for modifying adverb "needlessly.") Remember this maxim:Write to express, not to impress. Good business writers use short words well. Richard Lederer sings the praises of the short word to enhance clarity in his book, The Miracle of Language: Here is a sound rule: Use small, old words where you can. If a long word says just what you want to say, do not fear to use it. But know that our tongue is rich in crisp, brisk, swift, short words. Make them the spine and the heart of what you speak and write. Short words are like fast friends. They will not let you down. Read more about the power ofshort words. A clear business report allows an executive to easily understand a recommendation. A clearbusiness email allows all the readers to quickly understand. A proposal that clearly expresses your value wins the sale. Apply these clarity principles, and we're all able to understand each other better. Enjoy this article? Subscribe to this blog.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Depend on the topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Depend on the topic - Essay Example Yet, it pains me a lot that I, and those who look like me, my brothers, scattered around the world, suffer the same prejudice because of the physical features we inherited from Esau; linked to hatred, revenge, and murder based on the September 11, 2001 suicide attack, not to mention a few others in different parts of this world we are living in. For so long, I never felt at ease with foreigners because they made me feel they have a certain sense of fear that I am posing a threat on them. Consequently, I keep my peace and always have a longing for my home whenever I have to perform my duties and responsibilities in school or in other places. Although I have always been a lover of outdoor sports and other activities, I now feel more comfortable and would rather stay inside the house than go out with friends. It all started when I was confronted by a white young man who has been frisking me with his eyes from head to foot. Unable to move out from the queue I have been standing for some precious minutes, waiting for my turn to pay my groceries, I nervously smiled at him hoping I would make the atmosphere better. However, my efforts turned out to have flamed the stranger even more, muttering things to himself. I simply ignored this, knowing that I was in a foreign land where my people are hated for matters that we do not have any knowledge about, and because of the thought that I do not like to stoop to such a level. Gathering all the anger and hatred that he probably had for my people, he hissed his accusations at me saying, â€Å"Don’t come living with us, murderer.† Luckily, the lady in front of me was already picking her groceries so I made myself busy with mine, pretending I did not hear a word from the man who was standing beside me. Trembling from anger, I headed home after paying my groceries, pondering about the event. The questions that haunted me for years came afresh that day. Why do we have to look different?

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Solution to Campus Rapes across the US Research Paper

Solution to Campus Rapes across the US - Research Paper Example Solving campus rapes and sexual abuse has been one of the most difficult tasks due lack of evidence beyond reasonable doubts as most of the evidence presented are always scenarios of one’s word against those of the other. This policy papers seeks to establish the possible solutions available to address the college rape menace within legal boundaries and how to provide lasting solutions to the college administrations. In doing this, this proposal will highlight some of the empirical evidence available on college rapes and how the available solutions have failed to correct the anomaly. Introduction This is a policy paper that seeks to highlight some of the steps that should be taken to help eliminate the escalating levels of college rapes and sexual abuses. In describing the way forward, this paper will highlight some of the statistical data available on college rapes and how the vice has escalated in our universities. The weaknesses of the available laws and administrative agen das in mitigating this vice will also be highlighted to enables readers understand the magnitude of the vice. Finally, the paper will provide the solutions that should be adopted to help mitigate the vice and increase the safety of the students within our campuses. According to the analysis of campus rape and sexual assault report of 2011, of all the rapes reported in the states of Massachusetts, 4% occurred within colleges and campus residential areas. Out of this total, 74% were females who were sexually victimized in campus and their males colleagues accounted for over 99% of the perpetrators. A large percentage of the victims were white students followed distantly by blacks and the Hispanic Americans (Elizabeth 34). This demonstrates the level of the vice in our institutions and how the college administrations have been unable to adequately address the menace. Psychologist however points to another avenue of concern in trying to develop a lasting solution to this vice in our ins titution. According to this report, the victim and the offender have been shown to be either close friends, acquaintances, or strangely enough, boyfriends/girlfriends (Tolman 231). Most of these incidences, as the data indicates occur during the weekends and especially during the midnight hours towards dawn. Of all the rapes, 81% occurred in the college dormitories or students’ official residences, followed by out of campus houses or apartments at 9% and finally the fraternity at 4%. Weapons and force are used to carry out these activities and this was demonstrated in report which indicated that 60% of the rapes that were reported occurred as a result of the use of force or a weapon to intimidate the victim (Christopher 64). Campuses and colleges should be a safe ground for our children and relatives to pursue higher education upon which their future success is pegged. The environment that encourages and fruitful interaction of students should be devoid of any form of threat to the students either from outside or from within the institution. Rape has been shown by a number of psychological reports as one of the major causes of suicide, depression and low morale among the youths. Rape victims find it hard to forgive themselves for what happened to on that fateful night or day and this affects their studies and concentrations. Most rapes also occur in the absence of any form of

Friday, January 31, 2020

Effects of Mercury Contaminated Fish on Consumer’s Health Essay Example for Free

Effects of Mercury Contaminated Fish on Consumer’s Health Essay Mercury is an element that comes naturally in nature, or manufactured by humans.   It comes in different forms.   According to the New Jersey Department of Health, mercury may be found as metallic mercury, a kind of silver-gray liquid that is harmful when exposed into the air and breathed in; methylmercury, which may be ingested by eating fish; inorganic mercury which can be found in over-the-counter drugs, batteries, and other pharmaceuticals, and is harmful when breathed in or swallowed; and phenylmercury in household products like paints, cosmetics   and toiletries and is harmful when breathed in, swallowed or passed through the skin (Kapsch, et. al, 1999).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper delves into the mercury and its harmful effects on the fish population and ultimately, adverse effects on   human health. Mercury in the Environment   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As noted above, mercury is found naturally in the environment.  Ã‚   Paul Kapsch, Matt Landi and Sarah Scwartz writes that natural incidents and accidents like forest fires and volcanic eruptions spew mercury into the air (1999).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Natural Resource Defense Council adds that   power plants and certain chemicals manufacturers, as well as other industrial facilities release mercury into the air through their daily operations.   The released mercury eventually ends up in the waterways and oceans.   Fish in these ecosystems ingest the mercury, which people, in turn ingest by eating the fish. (NRDC, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mercury is also present in many things that one has at home like fluorescent and neon lamps, mercury switches in chest freezes, thermostat probes, thermometers, barometers and other gauges, laboratory solutions and even dental amalgam (Kapsch, et. al, 1999).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Paul Kapsch and his partners outlined the environmental impact of mercury.   Citing ExtoxNet (1999), Kapsch, et. al, stated that while mercury enters the environment, concentrations in the air and atmosphere is generally very low.   Mercury, however, is deposited into forest ecosystems where it accumulates in highly toxic forms.   Eventually it leads up to aquatic ecosystems, which in some cases contribute to human health problems.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Natural Resource Defense Council added that when mercury enters into the various water systems, bacteria take it in and convert it into a type of methyl mercury, which is easily absorbed by humans (1999).   The NRDC also explained that the mercury then works it way up the food chain as larger fish eat smaller contaminated fish.   Mercury, however, does not break down.   Instead it accumulates in fish (1999).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To illustrate the point, the NRDC stated that predatory fishes like sharks and mackerel have been found to have 10,000 times higher mercury concentration (1999). How Mercury Enters the Body   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mercury can enter the body by breathing it in, swallowing or eating contaminated food, drinking contaminated water , or through the skin (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2008).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Consumption of contaminated fish, however, is one of the most dangerous way of getting mercury in the body since it involves methylmercury, which is easily absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract into a persons bloodstream (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2008).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In 2003, Dr. Jane Hightower, doctor of internal medicine at the California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco, found that 89% of participating patients had high mercury levels.   Most of these participants had as much as four times the safe level of mercury in their blood stream.   Participants in Dr. Hightowers study were chosen precisely because of their fish-heavy diets. (NRDC, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Once in the bloodstream, the mercury goes into various parts of the body.   Methylmercury in pregnant women gets passed on into the childs blood stream and then into the childs brain.   A nursing mother may pass the methylmercury through breast milk. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2008). Health Risks   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The NRDC says that mercury exposure can be particularly hazardous for pregnant women and small children.  Ã‚   The NRDC adds that mercury exposure can lead to cerebral palsy, mental retardation, blindness and deafness in infants and fetuses.   Even with a minimal exposure, the child may be delayed in learning how to walk and talk, have low attention span and may later on develop learning disabilities   (NRDC, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   And the numbers are alarming.   In July 2005, researchers at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 1 in 17 women of childbearing age have more than 5.8 micrograms of mercury per liter of blood.   The CDC stated that this level may pose a risk to the developing child (NRDC, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mercury-contaminated fish is not just dangerous for children and pregnant women but it is also dangerous for adults (Mercola.Com, 2003).   Mercola.Com related that mercury destroys the nerve tissues, the visual cortex and the cerebellum.   It affects complex movements and balance.   It also leads to problems in attention span and language.   It also decreases concentration, deftness and verbal memory in adults.   (Mercola.Com, 2003).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For some adults, mercury poisoning can lead to fertility problems and blood pressure regulation problems.   It also causes memory loss, vision loss, numbness in the fingers and toes, and tremors.   It is suspected that mercury exposure also leads to heart disease (NRDC, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry warned that the nervous system is prone to mercury contamination.   The Agency said that in this type of mercury poisoning, some people who consumed seed grains and fish contaminated with large amounts of methyl mercury developed severe brain and kidneys damage.  Ã‚   The Agency explains that mercury accumulates in the kidneys, so it damages it more.   (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2008).   * * *   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The above discussion shows that consumption of mercury contaminated fish is very dangerous for consumer’s health, and is a source of different diseases especially in   (but not limited to) children and pregnant women. Studies have concluded that mercury poisoning have caused several conditions and diseases from simple memory loss, loss of concentration, fertility problems to something as grave and irreparable as mental retardation and kidney ailments.   And studies on the relationship between mercury and other, more life-threatening diseases like heart ailments are currently underway.   The growing body of evidence all points to some disease that can be traced to mercury poisoning.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Consumers have to actively control their fish diets.   If they are fond of eating fish, they might find it useful to regularly check and look for advisories regarding mercury contamination in their area.   It is also recommended that they regularly check their own mercury levels and if they found their mercury levels higher they have to consult with their doctors immediately.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Since mercury poisoning is more dangerous to pregnant women and small children, it might be best to veer away from eating fish altogether, and take up healthier choices such as vegetables and dairy products.   Being more vigilant with regards to ones diet can reap long-term prevention that would help ensure optimum health.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Authorities need to take much stronger steps to protect a far greater portion of people.   Authorities must examine their antiquated safeguards designed to protect an average person   from an average amount of methyl mercury in fish and take more protective and realistic actions against exposure to methyl mercury through food. Authorities need to constantly update themselves, as safe levels of mercury in the diet are constantly changing.   In fact, the trend is that the required safe levels are getting higher with each new research that goes out of the pipeline.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Public health authorities, as well as community leaders, or any health-related organization, must come together to inform, educate and empower the public about the dangers of fish consumption, mercury contamination, and adverse health effects.   Information is the best weapon against mercury contamination, without it, no amount of public policy will be sufficient or effective.   The public needs to be aware of what mercury does to the body, the diseases associated with it, where mercury could be found, how it gets into your body, what measures are to be done.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   More than anything, it is high time to look at more efficient ways of disposing all types of mercury.   Since mercury could be found in nature, it will be next to impossible to eradicate it.   What one could hope for is to reduce environmental damage from the mercury that we can control.   If people could somehow take care and reduce the amount of mercury that goes into the environment as waste, people would be protecting not only the oceans and the fish, but also themselves.   Taking care of the environment would ensure sustainability in the future and would drastically decrease mercuryand in fact and principleall types of contamination.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In effect, stopping or greatly reducing mercury contamination and all the ill effects associated with it takes the effort of everybody in the community, but it starts mainly with your self.          References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (Content source); Sidney Draggan and Emily Monosson (Topic Editors). 2008. Public Health Statement for Mercury. In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth November 13, 2007; Last revised January 24, 2008; Retrieved April 2, 2008]. Jeremy Laurence, (8 March, 2007) Fish Contaminated With Mercury Pose Worldwide Threat to Health. The Independent.   Retrieved on 3 April 2008. Kapsch, Paul, Landi, Matt and Schwartz Sarah. (1999). Mercury. University of Vermont. Retrieved on 3 April 2008. Learn About Mercury and Its Effects, (2006) Natural Resource Defense Council. Retrieved on 23rd March 2008. Mercury-Contaminated Fish Poses Health Risks to Adults, (2003) Retrieved on 25th March, 2008.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Greed :: essays research papers

For more than fifteen years psychologist Julian Edney has visited college campuses across the nation to study the effects of greed in a society where over $100 billion in new wealth accumulates each year. On each of his stays, he would play a game with randomly selected students where 10 metal nuts in a bowl represented ‘extra credit’. The students would then take the nuts for a single extra credit point. In this, he promised to double the amount of nuts left in the bowl every 10 seconds. Hypothetically, the game could last forever yielding limitless rewards as the students took turns taking a nut from the bowl. However Dr. Edney determined that 65 percent of the groups couldn’t get pass the first 10 second round, and the others could only make it a few more cycles until modest students turned into rambunctious maniacs scrounging for that last nut. Edney’s conclusion: Greed trumps trust. (U.S. News Magazine, 6/17/96 Special) â€Å"Small towns and neighborhoods in America used to be cohesive,† political scientist Bruce Frohnen pronounced in the May 1999 issue of Family Policy. â€Å"They did not seek openness to all ways of life. Nor did they seek economic betterment as the sole proper goal,† he added. â€Å"Faith and tradition were ruling forces in the lives of Americans, bidding them care for their families and neighbors and their souls, as much as their pocketbooks.† But as the material girls and boys grew, so did the need for greed. In a recent study by Roper Starch Worldwide, the values of teenagers moving into the new millennium have drastically changed from their parent’s visions. The percentage who said they wanted to earn â€Å"a lot of money† grew 25 points from the 38 percent in 1975. Those who said they needed a microwave oven as a necessity rose 19 points, and the percentage that believed life without an answering machine was incomprehensible grew more than 18 points. At the same time, teenagers who believed â€Å"developing a meaningful philosophy of life† dropped by 42 percent. However the rise of money’s power in student-age adults coincided with a reward system for the newly transpired talents. Repetitive tasks are being replaced by super technology while responsibilities requiring intelligence and skill are more emphasized. It is a â€Å"winner take all† society though, where the lopsided share of benefits go to very few players. The ostentation is not all coming from the upcoming generation though.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Participatory Notes Essay

Participatory Notes commonly know as P-Notes or PNs are instruments issued by registered foreign institutional investors (FII) to overseas investors, who wish to invest in the Indian stock markets without registering themselves with the market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India – SEBI. SEBI permitted foreign institutional investors to register and participate in the Indian stock market in 1992. Investing through P-Notes is very simple and hence very popular amongst foreign institutional investors. Contents 1 Working 2 Need 3 Participatory Notes Crisis of 2007 4 Trends in PN 5 References Working Participatory notes are instruments used for making investments in the stock markets. However, they are not used within the country. They are used outside India for making investments in shares listed in that country. That is why they are also called offshore derivative instruments. In the Indian context, foreign institutional investors (FIIs) and their sub-accounts mostly use these instruments for facilitating the participation of their overseas clients, who are not interested in participating directly in the Indian stock market. For example, Indian-based brokerages buy India-based securities and then issue participatory notes to foreign investors. Any dividends or capital gains collected from the underlying securities go back to the investors. Need Anonymity: Any entity investing in participatory notes is not required to register with SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India), whereas all FIIs have to compulsorily get registered. It enables large hedge funds to carry out their operations without disclosing their identity. Ease of Trading: Trading through participatory notes is easy because participatory notes are like contract notes transferable by endorsement and delivery. Tax Saving: Some of the entities route their investment through participatory notes to take advantage of the tax laws of certain preferred countries. Money Laundering: PNs are becoming a favourite with a host of Indian money launderers who use them to first take funds out of country through hawala and then get it back using PNs.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Reading Comprehension Case Study - 14945 Words

Case Study: â€Å"Lucy† Amanda M. Cyprowski Assessment Instruction in Reading Mrs. Jennifer Unger December 4, 2013 CONTENT OF ANALYSIS Personal Interest Survey Pages 3-5 Elementary Reading Attitude Survey Pages 6-9 Words Their Way: Primary Spelling Inventory Pages 10-13 Burns Roe: Informal Reading Inventory Graded Word Lists Pages 14-17 Oral Reading Passages Pages 18-23 Silent Reading Passages Pages 24-29 Listening Comprehension Passages Pages 30-34 Conclusion of Results Pages 35-36 Fountas Pinnell: Benchmark Assessments Oral Reading Pages 39-42 Written Retelling Pages 43-47 Results Pages 48-36 Case Study Response Pages 54-68†¦show more content†¦After the survey was over, Lucy was walked back to the class where she laid down and began to read a book right away. Based on the discussion of Lucy’s personal interests inside and outside of school, it may be motivational and effective to inform reading and writing instruction by using her favorite book series, Jack and Annie by Mary Pope Osbourne. The series follows a brother and series through their time travels to places in the past, the future, and places that are only in their imagination. Lucy lit up talking about the book series and mentioned that she would like to take a magic carpet ride to Paris, France to ride around in an â€Å"electric wheel chair.† She made it known that the magic carpet ride would have to take place in the future because in the past there was â€Å"no sunscreen and everything was cheap.† Since Lucy enjoys time travel and animals, it may enhance her word and reading study by incorporate book with those themes. The Personal Interest Survey was the first assessment to be administered to the student. 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